CO2 emissions reduction: substitution paths, CCUS and negative CO2 emissions

  1. Babin, (IFP School – PEC), J.P. Deflandre (IFP School – GE), A. Nicolle (Climate Economic Chair, Université Paris Dauphine), D. Bossanne (IFP School – PEC)


Eligibility/Pre-requisites: Basic knowledge in:          

- thermodynamics, chemical reaction, distillation, heat exchange

- geosciences

Learning outcomes:  After the course the student should be able to:

- describe the main CO2 management challenges

- state on the benefit of renewable-sourced materials for substitution to the use of fossil fuels

- design the main steps of a Carbon Capture and Storage project including a focus on the different capture routes (post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxy-fuel combustion) and the way to permanently store CO2 underground (storage site selection and monitoring).

- present the various technologies that have been developed to recover the energy content of low temperature streams, in particular the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and the Kalina cycle.

- restitute the economics issues such as the societal ones, engineers and economists have to deal with for a sustainable deployment of technological solutions to manage anthropogenic carbon emissions by 2050.



The course is divided in three blocs dedicated to CO2 substitution paths, and Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage with both technical and economic aspects. It will also refer to the concept of negative CO2 emissions.


  1. CO2 management introduction, carbon budget towards a sustainable development (J.P. Deflandre)

           - Primary energy demand

           - Constraints on the demand

           - Meeting demand with a decarbonized energy mix

 - CO2 management

- Societal perception issues


  1. CO2 capture technologies: principle (D. Bossanne)

            - Anthropogenic CO2 sources, CO2 capture and energy penalty

- Post-combustion capture technologies

- Pre-combustion capture technologies

- Oxy-combustion capture technologies


  1. CO2 capture technologies: application examples (D. Bossanne)

- Chemical absorption: sizing of a CO2 absorber

- A phase change solvent for post-combustion CO2 capture

- Chemical loop combustion, a promising concept with challenging development


  1. Energy efficiency: waste heat recovery (D. Bossanne)

- CO2 capture and waste heat recovery

- Comparison of low temperature waste heat recovery methods

- Waste heat recovery from flue gas: case study


  1. CO2 geological storage part 1 (J.P. Deflandre)

- CO2 underground: a fact

- CO2 geological storage options and requirements, analogies and differences with natural gas storage.

- State of art and deployment workflow

- Scientific / technical challenges and bottlenecks (Economics and public perception issues)


  1. CO2 storage part 2 (J.P. Deflandre)

            - Modelling and monitoring issues based on field case examples

            - Mapping CO2 migration and storage at Sleipner: combining reservoir pressure modelling and time-lapse seismic interpretation

            - Injection pressure issues at Snohvit and In Salah

            - Validation of pressure reservoir modelling at In Salah (combining reservoir pressure    and geomechanical modeling together with site monitoring)


  1. CO2 emissions reduction: fossil fuel feedstock substitution approach (P. Babin)

- Life cycle assessment and carbon neutral  

- Renewable feedstock, bio-sourced chemicals and polymers: trends, market analysis, players, stakes, …

- Examples of renewable resources based-polymers


  1. CO2 emissions reduction: natural gas substitution approach (D. Bossanne)

- The scene: natural gas supply chain and GHG emissions.

- Natural gas substitution: biogas (1st generation), synthetic gas from biomass (2nd generation), Power to Gas (PTG) and methanation: production scheme and use

           - GHG accounting: biomethane leakages and biogenic CO2 emissions

- Panel of solutions for moving from carbon-neutral to carbon-negative emissions


  1. The deployment of BECCS/CCS, an economic perspective (A. Nicolle)

           - We adopt a microeconomic perspective and examine the deployment of BECCS/CCS technologies. We show that this problem naturally calls for the application of concepts and notions developed in game theory. We first highlight the conditions needed for the design of adapted policies (i.e., the ones capable to incentivize the adoption of carbon capture capabilities). We then discuss the conditions for the construction of shared, large scale, CO2 transportation and storage infrastructures. Lastly, we analyze the policies that are currently implemented and show how the application of economic theory can provide useful guidance to policymakers, investors and regulators interested in CCS/BECCS.

  1. Project restitution

The evaluation is based on a team project work including the oral presentation of the project, a 10 to 15-page report and an individual participation mark.

The project can be proposed by the team itself or by the academic team.

Project aims at considering a CO2 management integrated scenario and it may cover most of the lecturing topics. The project can be limited to a specific regional area considering its own specificities or it can tackle a large-scale objective. In all case it may consider both the technical and economic aspects but also the societal ones.

Last but not least, each project presentation is performed in the presence of all the students and will be debate by the whole group. In other words, the evaluation first aims at enhancing the debate on managing CO2 more than delivering a mark. It is fully a pedagogical step of this lecture program.