Text is found everywhere. Text mining, Natural Language Processing (NLP), information retrieval and recommendation systems are very important from an applied point of view and are highly sought after by the GAFAM and the industry in general. There is especially a vast industrial interest currently in search engines, web marketing/advertising, social networks analysis, and recommendation systems, which involve text to a large extent. This huge market and strong demand has made NLP a central research field with high visibility and impact.